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资料:HIking、walking、tramping  

2016-01-13 11:50:59|  分类: 资料篇 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Hiking

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the nautical definition, see Hiking (sailing).
"Tramping" redirects here. For other uses, see Tramping (disambiguation).

Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. 

On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the term walking is used to describe all forms of walking, whether it is a walk in the park or backpacking in the Alps. The word hiking is also sometimes used in the UK, along with rambling, hillwalking, and fell walking.

In New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping.[1] It is a popular activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide, and studies suggest that all forms of walking have health benefits.[2][3]
History
The idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th-century, and arose because of changing attitudes to the landscape and nature, associated with the Romantic movement.(浪漫主义运动)[8] In earlier times walking generally indicated poverty(贫穷) and was also associated with vagrancy(类似流浪).[9]
  1. The Norton Anthology of English Literature, ed. M. H,Abrams, vol.2 (7th edition) (2000), p. 9-10.
  2. Jump up9^ Rebecca Solnit, Wanderlust: A History of Walking. New York: Penguin Books, 2000, p.83, and note p.297.

Long distance hiking

The Appalachian Trail provides the opportunity for a 3,500-kilometre (2,200 mi)-long hike.[22]

Frequently nowadays long distance hikes (walking tours) are undertaken along long distance paths, including the National Trails in England and Wales, the National Trail System in the USA and The Grande Randonnée (France), Grote Routepaden, or Lange-afstand-wandelpaden (Holland), Grande Rota (Portugal), Gran Recorrido (Spain) is a network of long-distance footpaths in Europe, mostly in FranceBelgium, the Netherlandsand Spain. There are extensive networks in other European countries of long distance trails, as well as in CanadaAustraliaNew Zealand,Nepal, and to a lesser extent other Asiatic countries, like TurkeyIsrael, and Jordan. In the Alps of AustriaSloveniaSwitzerland,GermanyFrance, and Italy walking tours are often made from 'hut-to-hut', using an extensive system of mountain huts.

In the late 20th-century there has been a proliferation of official and unofficial long distance routes, which mean that hikers now are more likely to refer to using a long distance way (Britain), trail (USA), The Grande Randonnée (France), etc., than setting out on a walking tour. Early examples of long distance paths, include the Appalachian Trail in the USA and the Pennine Way in Britain. Pilgrimage routes are now treated, by some walkers, as long distance routes, and the route taken by the British National Trail the North Downs Way closely follows that of the Pilgrims' Way to Canterbury.

Hiking times can be estimated by Naismith's rule or Tobler's hiking function.


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